PARTISIPASI MASYARAKAT DALAM PENGELOLAAN WILAYAH PESISIR DI ACEH

Safrina Safrina

Sari


Abstrak

 

Partisipasi masyarakat dalam perlindungan dan pengelolaan lingkungan hidup telah menjadi agenda negara-negara di dunia terutama setelah menjadi salah satu prinsip dalam Deklarasi Rio 1992. Indonesia melalui Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2009 tentang Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup mencantumkan prinsip partisipatif sebagai salah satu asas dalam penyusunan setiap kebijakan terkait lingkungan hidup. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk memaparkan pelaksanaan Program Pengelolaan Wilayah Laut Berbasis masyarakat pada Masyarakat Ujong Pancu, Kabupaten Aceh Besar dan memahami bagaimana peran institusi adat laot (Panglima Laot) dalam pengelolaan lingkungan pesisir. Perlindungan dan pengelolaan wilayah pesisir di Aceh dilakukan dengan menggunakan dua pendekatan, yaitu melalui pembentukan aturan hukum yang mendukung dan penguatan kapasitas institusi masyarakat, institusi adat dan hukum adat yang dipercaya dapat menjadi wadah yang efektif untuk melibatkan masyarakat dalam proses pembangunan. Melalui program tersebut masyarakat terlibat secara langsung dalam penentuan kawasan konservasi laut dan juga ikut menentukan langkah-langkah yang terbaik untuk melindungi kawasan pesisir tempat mereka menetap. Lebih lanjut, melalui pengelolaan wilayah pesisir berbasis masyarakat dapat meminimalkan dampak negatif dari pembangunan dan memungkinkan masyarakat untuk memperoleh informasi yang berimbang dan obyektif sehingga dapat memberikan kontribusi untuk pemecahan masalah-masalah lingkungan.

 

Abstract

 

Community participation in protection and management of the environment has been on the agenda of countries in the world, especially after incorporated as a principle in the Rio Declaration of 1992. Indonesia, through Law No. 32 of 2009 on the Environmental Protection and Management included participatory principle in policy-making related to the environment. This study aims to examine the implementation of community participation in coastal management and to analyze the role of adat institution (Panglima Laot) in managing the coastal environment in Aceh. Protection and management of coastal areas in Aceh is conducted under two approaches, namely the establishment of the regulations that support the implementation process and strengthening the capacity of public institutions; and traditional institutions and customary laws that are believed can be an effective way to engage community in the development process. Through a program of community-based coastal management, community directly involved in determining the marine conservation areas and also determine the best steps to protect their region. Moreover, the program can also minimize the negative impacts of development and enable public to obtain a balanced and objective information that can contribute to solve the problems in their environment.


Kata Kunci


Partisipasi masyarakat; perlindungan dan pengelolaan lingkungan hidup; community participation; protection and management of the environment

Teks Lengkap:

PDF (English)

Referensi


A. Syakur dkk. “Ensuring local stakeholder support for marine conservation: establishing a locally-managed marine area network in Aceh”, Oryx, 46, (2012): 516-524.

Aceh Ocean Coral, Formasi Terumbu Karang Aceh. http://acehoceancoral.org/artikel/formasi-terumbu-karang-aceh, diakses pada 28 Februari 2014.

Adli, A. “Model Hukum Adat Laot Menuju Keberlanjutan Lingkungan”, di dalam Kearifan Lokal di Laut Aceh, edited by Adli, et. Al, 23. Banda Aceh: Syiah Kuala University Press, 2010.

Aslin and Brown. Toward whole of Community Engagement: A Practical toolkit. Australia: Murray Darling Basin Commission, 2004.

Dakin, Susan. “Challenging Old Models of Knowledge and learning: New Perspective for Participation in Environmental Management and Planning”, Environments, vol.31, No.1 (2003): 93-107.

Johnston, Kim A. Community Engagement: A relational perspective, dalam Tebbutt, J dan Cregan, Kate (Editor), Proceeding Australia and New Zealand Communication Association Annual Conference: Communication, Civics, Industry. Melbourne Australia: La Trobe University, 2007.

Hudalah, D, Winarso, H, and Woltjer, J. “Policy networking as capacity building: An analysis of regional road development conflict in Indonesia”, Planning Theory, vol. 9 (4), (2010): 315-332.

Juhola and Westerhoff, L. “Challenges of adaptation to climate change across multiple scales: A case study of network governance in two European countries”, Environmental Science & Policy, vol. 14, (2011): 239–247.

Kamaruzzaman, Bustaman, A. “Panglima Laot di Aceh Masa Kini: Sebuah Tinjauan Sosial-Antropologi”, di dalam Kearifan Lokal di Laut Aceh, edited by Adli, et al, 1-13. Banda Aceh: Syiah Kuala University Press, 2010.

Muhammad Akib. Politik Hukum Lingkungan: Dinamika dan Refleksinya dalam Produk Hukum Otonomi Daerah. Jakarta: RajaGrafindo Persada, 2012.

Oracion, Miller, Christie. “Marine Protected Areas for whom? Fisheries, tourism, and solidarity in Philippine community”, Ocean and Coastal Management, vol. 48, (2005): 393-410.

Ostrom, E. 1999. “Self-governance and Forest Resources”, Occasional paper no. 20, Centre for International Forestry Research, (1999): 1-15.

Reed, M, S. “Stakeholder Participation for Environmental Management: A Literature Review”, Biological Conservation, vol. 141, (2008): 2417-2430.

Sarkissian, dkk. Kitchen Table Sustainability: Practical Recipes for Community Engagement with Sustainability. United Kingdom: Earthscan, 2009.

Sulaiman Tripa. Eksistensi Hukom Adat Laot Menuju Pengentasan Kemiskinan, Makalah dipresentasikan dalam Forum Rembug Nasional Mahasiswa Pascasarjana. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gajah Mada, 2009.

---------. 2010. Lembaga Hukum Adat Laot dan Peran yang Terus Berubah’, di dalam Kearifan Lokal di Laut Aceh, edited by Adli, dkk, 95-122. Banda Aceh: Syiah Kuala University Press.

Tullungan, Kussoy, and Crawford. Community Based Coastal Resources Management in Indonesia: North Sulawesi early stage experiences, Convention of Integrated Coastal Management Practitioners in the Philippines, 10-12 November 1998.

Warburton. A Passionate Dialogue: Community and Sustainable Development, 1998, dalam Warburton, Community and Sustainable Development: Participation in the future. United Kingdom: Earthscan, 1998.

Wilson & Linkie. 2012. “The Panglima Laot of Aceh: a case study in large-scale community-based marine management after the 2004 India Ocean tsunami”, Oryx, 46, (2012): 495-500.


Refbacks

  • Saat ini tidak ada refbacks.


##submission.copyrightStatement##

##submission.license.cc.by-nc-nd4.footer##

Jurnal Hukum Lingkungan Indonesia indexed by:

 

Our mailing address is:

ICEL - Indonesian Center for Environmental Law

Jl. Dempo II No. 21, Kebayoran Baru Jakarta Selatan,Indonesia 12120

Indonesia 12120